NEEP602 Course Notes (Fall 1996)
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Style Sheet for NEEP-602/Geology-376 Term Papers



THREE OR MORE SHOULD BE REPORTS IN REFEREED JOURNALS (see last page for list). You should start with review papers in non-refereed publications and work back to find key facts, etc. in refereed journals. Refereed journals contain papers that have been read and criticized by experts before acceptance in the journal, and usually are rewritten before publication based on the reviews (referees' comments). You can tell them because they carry the dates of both submission and acceptance for publication, and often have extensive reference lists. They are, however, likely to be more specialized than those in non-refereed publications.


The paper should be nominally 20 pages long including figures, tables, and references, There should be a minimum of 15 pages of text and in no case should the total length of the paper exceed 30 pages. Use double spaced, 12 point type with 1 inch margins on the sides, top, and bottom. Refer to your illustrations in the text and cite their source in the figure caption.


Think about considering multiple hypotheses, evaluating them as to likelihood of being correct, about methods of observation, including how the data were collected, possible errors, and how these influence conclusions.


Include the significance for the future, critical factors that are not known, and suggestions for research reflecting critical needs. "Further research is required" is not an acceptable conclusion without specifics. The synthesis should demonstrate your understanding of the vital factors. This is where you put it all together.


Quote and reference key facts and statements. Do not use the footnote reference style in scientific writing. Instead, indicate the ideas, statements, or facts that are not your own in one of two ways:

1. If you are QUOTING DIRECTLY, use quotation marks. At the end of the quote, in parentheses, write the last name of the author, year of publication, and page number. If the quote is 5 or more lines long, set it off by indentation, without quotation marks. For example:

       The upper parts of ophiolite sequences, especially the
       pillow lavas, host massive iron-copper-zinc sulfide
       deposits. The deposits range from a few thousand
       to 20 million tons of ore, containing 0.5 to 10 percent
       copper, 0.5 to 3 percent zinc, and a few ounces of
       gold and silver per ton. (Koski et al., 1982, p. 47)

2. If you are using someone else's thoughts or findings but stating them in your own words, do not use quotation marks. You still must acknowledge the source, however. For example:

    The upper parts of the ophiolite sequences contain sulfide
    deposits that have between a few thousand to 20 million tons
    of ore (Koski et al., 1982, p. 47).
    OR: Koski et al. (1982, p. 47) report that the upper parts...


Provide a reference list at the end of the paper, alphabetized by authors' last names. If you are quoting an article from a magazine, journal, or other collection, give the author(s), title of the article, and then the title of the publication (underlined):

   Koski, R. A., W. R. Normark, J. L. Morton, and J. R. Delaney, 1982, Metal
   sulfide deposits on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Oceanus, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 42-

If the article is in a volume of collected papers (volume title underlined):

   Henry, R. F., and T. S. Murty, 1982, Tides in the Bay of Bengal, in
   Computational Methods and Experimental Measurements, G. A. Keramidas
   and C. A. Brebbia (editors), pp. 44-67, Springer-Verlag Publ. Co., New York.

Reference for a book (title underlined):

   David, E. D., 1982, The Geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef: Quaternary
   Development of Coral Reefs, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 453 pp.

Anonymous report from government office, research lab, private business, etc.:

   National Academy of Sciences, 1980, The International Mussel Watch,
   Washington, DC, 104 p.

LIBRARIES - there are many and a few are listed below:

INDEXES. The librarians can help you locate these. Most index by subject as well as by author (separately). N. B.: "Networks" below are accessible in the Geology library and most other libraries.

Campus card catalogues (books and journal titles) are now computer-accessible from 1976 or earlier.

Some PUBLICATIONS you might use:

NON-REFEREED PUBLICATIONS. (These can be of crucial importance in getting started and for getting an overview of your subject.)

  • Science News, PHYS, MEM, COLL
  • Oceanus (recommended) GEOL, COLL
  • Sea Frontiers, GEOL, COLL
  • Scientific American, most libraries
  • Geotimes, GEOL, GEOG
  • EOS, Trans. Am. Geophysical Union, GEOL
  • Newsweek, Time, etc., COLL, MEM
  • New York Times, MEM
  • National Geographic, COLL, MEM
  • Audubon, BIOL, COLL
  • National Wildlife, AGR, COLL
  • Popular Science, MEM, ENGR
  • Smithsonian, COLL, MEM
  • American Scientist, BIOL, COLL, MEM, PHYS
  • New Scientist, COLL, MEM, PHYS
  • Natural History, COLL, BIOL, MEM, AGR
  • REFEREED JOURNALS. (The word "referee" is pronounced like the official at a ballgame and in many ways means the same.)

  • Am. Meteorological Soc. Bull., ENGR, GEOG
  • Geophysical Journal, GEOL
  • Nature, Science, BIOL, COLL, ENGR, GEOL, GEOG, MEM, AGR (only articles that show bibliographies and submitted and accepted dates; other valuable articles are by staff writers, but these are not refereed)
  • Jour. of Geophysical Research, GEOL
  • Geological Soc. of Am. Bull., GEOL
  • Jour. of Marine Research, BIOL
  • Quarterly Review of Biology, BIOL
  • Limnology and Oceanography, BIOL, GEOL
  • Biological Bulletin, AGR, BIOL
  • Jour. of Geology, GEOL
  • Jour. of Physical Oceanography, ENGR, GEOL
  • Deep-Sea Research, Pt. A: Oceanog. Res. papers, GEOL Geology, GEOL
  • Marine Geology, GEOL

  • Back to Syllabus

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