NEEP533 Course Notes (Spring 1999)
Resources from Space
Lecture #18: Another Ecological Niche!
Title: Resources of Mars
- Figure: Mars Base (NASA Art)
- Table: Limits of Habitability (McKay, 1991)
- Table: Resource Use by a Mars Base (Meyer, and Mckay,1989)
Other potential resource concentrations on Mars besides water at the poles, in the atmosphere, or as ground ice.
- Sorting of heavy minerals from sand and gravel by water
- Sorting of clays from sand by wind
- Sorting of clays from sand by settling rates in lakes (layered sediments)
- Chemical evaporite precipitates of carbonate, iron oxides, and various salts in lakes
- Metal sulfide precipitates in lake beds
- "Black smoker" sulfide deposits in lake beds
- Hydrothemal veins of metal sulfides and carbonates near volcanos
Hydrothermal deposits veins and disseminated deposts in the megaregolith of the Uplands
SUMMARY STATEMENT ON RESOURCES FROM MARS
SELF-SUFFICENCY IS ASSURED FOR FUTURE SETTLERS
SOME EXPORTS TO DEEP SPACE USERS ARE LIKELY
BUT NO KNOWN RESOURCES, STANDING ALONE, JUSTIFY EXPORT TO EARTH
AT A NET PROFIT
SOME CASH-FLOW COULD BE REALIZED
BY-PRODUCTS OF OTHER NECESSARY ACTIVITES
THIS WAS SAID ABOUT THE MOON UNTIL 1985
BEFORE IMPORTANCE OF 3HE IDENTIFIED
- * Lunar differences based on Mariner and Viking photography and analyses
- * atmosphere present, but variable over time (Haberle, 1993)
- * water ice at the poles and ground ice at latitudes >35-40o (See Carr, 1984, Cave, 1993, and Meyer and McKay, 1989)
- * water sorted material very probable, including mineral concentrations based on density (Komatsu, et al., 1993, Pathfinder Rover Team, 1997)
- * atmospheric protection from micrometeorites and from solar wind particles (except near the zenith)
- * craters less than 30m in diameter are absent
- * Martian "regolith" highly variable mixtures of coarse rock debris (vesicular lavas, dense lavas, and breccias at the Viking lander sites), sorted fine material, and wind-blown dust.
- Figure: General views of the Viking landing sites (NASA photos)
* soil less dense and more porous than lunar regolith
- * density 1.4-1.6 versus 1.9 for lunar regolith
- * porosity about 60% versus about 25%
- SUMMARY OF DIFFERENCES AT SURFACE OF MOON AND MARS
- GROUND ICE
- POLAR ICE (?)
- WATER SORTED MATERIALS
- SURFACE AREA AND/OR SHAPE
- FINELY PULVERIZED REGOLITH ABSENT
- ATMOSPHERE PROTECTS
- CURRENTLY CRATERS <~30 M NOT FORMED
- SOLAR WIND (EXCEPT AROUND ZENITH)
- MARTIAN "REGOLITH"
- COARSE ROCK DEBRIS
- EXTREMELY FINE WIND-BLOWN DUST
- WATER-BOURNE MATERIALS
- GENERALLY LESS DENSE
- 1.4-1.6 GM/CM2 VS. 1.9 FOR MOON
- DUNES VERY LOW BEARING STRENGTH
- GENERALLY MORE PORUS
- ~60% VS. ~25%
* arguments and evidence for clay minerals at the surface
- * The chemistry of the soils analyzed by Viking and Pathfinder suggest that the soil has been produced by palogonitic weathering of iron rich silicate and include poorly crystalline, Fe+-rich gels, containing nanophase ferric oxide (Stoker, et al., 1993, Rieder, et al, 1997).
- * Actual clay minerals, such as iron rich montmorillonites, could be up to 15% and not be detected by present spectral techniques.
- * Spectral studies also indicate some water bound in mineral crystal structures.
- * Weathering near freezing 105 slower than on Earth Burns and Fisher, 1993).
- * Soils also include minor sulfates, carbonates and oxides (Stoker, et al., 1993).
* wind sorting of surface material, including dust deposits
- * very low density dune deposits with very low bearing strength (no micrometeorite tamping
* evidence of surface crusts ("duricrust") due to chemical precipitation
- * possibly Mg,Na sulfates, Ca, Mg, Fe carbonates, and Na chlorides salts (Stoker, et al., 1993)
- * modeling of spectral data indicates that atmospheric dust may include 0-3% carbonate and 10-15% sulfate-bearing compounds.
- * crustal carbonates are indicated by some of the Martian meteorites collected from the ice in Antarctica
* soils appear to be oxidizing (1-10 ppb of reacting oxidants) rather than reducing (NASA, 1988)
- * Model Martian Soil Composition (Stoker, et al., 1993)
- * Silicate minerals 84-79%
- * Magnetic minerals 3%
- * Sulfate salts 12%
- * Chloride salts 1%
- * Carbonates 0-4%
- * Nitrates 0-1%
- * Water (may be much higher) >1%
Table: Analysis of soils at Viking landing sites (Carr, et al., 1984) Page 57
- Soil composition from Pathfinder (Rieder, et al, 1997)
- FeO ~16%
- Al2O3 ~8%
- MgO ~8%
- CaO ~6%
- SO3 ~5.5%
- Na2O ~2%
- TiO2 ~1.1%
- Cl ~0.6%
- K2O ~0.3%
- Note that SiO2 and FeO appear significantly higher at the Pathfinder site
- SUMMARY OF THE NATURE OF SURFACE MATERIAL
- VIKING AND PATHFINDER ANALYSES
- SUGGESTS WEATHERED BASALT
- ALSO MINOR SULFATES, CARBONATES, AND OXIDES
- EARTH-BASED SPECTRA INDICATE WATER BOUND IN MINERALS
- CLAY, E.G. FE-RICH MONTMORILLONITES, COULD BE UPTO 15%
- SPECTRA ALSO INDICATE DUST MAY INCLUDE <3% CARBONATE AND 10-15% SULFATES
- PATHFINDER MAGNETS INDICATE FE2O3
- SURFACE CRUST "(DURICRUST" OR MARTIAN CALICHE)
- MG AND NA SULFATES (?)
- CA, MG, AND FE CARBONATES
- FE CARBONATE (SIDERITE) IN MARTIAN METEORITES
- CHLORIDE SALTS
- SOILS APPEAR TO BE OXIDIZING (1-10 PPB OF REACTING OXIDANTS)
- MODEL MARTIAN SOIL COMPOSITION (VIKING)
- * SILICATE MINERALS 84-79%
- * MAGNETIC MINERALS 3%
- * SULFATE SALTS 12%
- * CHLORIDE SALTS 1%
- * CARBONATES 0-4%
- * NITRATES 0-1%
- *WATER (MAY BE MUCH HIGHER) >1%
- SOIL COMPOSITION FROM PATHFINDER
- SIO2 ~50%
- FEO ~16%
- AL2O3 ~8%
- MGO ~8%
- CAO ~6%
- SO3 ~5.5%
- NA2O ~2%
- TIO2 ~1.1%
- CL ~0.6%
- K2O ~0.3%
- HIGHER SIO2 AND FEO THAN FOR VIKING SITES
- GREATER WEATHERING OR WATER SORTING (?)
Non-metallic materials available for Martian construction
- * Regolith cover for insulation and zenith radiation protection
- * Road aggregate from naturally sorted materials
- * Sintered structural materials
- * Solar cell material
- * Clay minerals for ceramics
- * Plant growth medium (probably consistent planet-wide)
* Metallic materials required for Martian manufacturing and operations
* Iron and nickel from meteorite debris in regolith
- * Nickel and Cobalt
- * Platinum Group, Ge, Re, and other siderophile elements, e.g. Au
- * Titanium from ilmenite in basaltic regolith
- * Oxygen and iron can be by-products
- * Aluminum from CaAl2Si2O8 (anorthite, is probably the dominant mineral in the Martian cratered highlands), from Na4Al3Si9O24Cl-Ca4Al6Si6O24(CO3,SO4) (scapolite), and/or from clay minerals
- * Silicon (Aluminum)
- * Oxygen
- * Sodium
- * Potassium
- * Chlorine
- * Carbon
- * Cr2O3 from (Fe,Mg)(Cr,Al,Ti)2O4 (spinel in basalt)
* MgO from (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 (olivine) in basalt
* Other useful elements
- * Indigenous volatiles
- * water and derived hydrogen and oxygen from the atmosphere, permafrost, ice, and clays
- Table: Average composition of the atmosphere (Carr, et al., 1984) page 48
* Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and carbonates
- * CO2 and CH4 (hydrogen initially from lunar or terrestrial sources) from the atmosphere could be particularly important as a propulsion components even on early exploration missions (Zubrin and Baker, 1991).
- * methane produce by the well known industrial reaction:
- CO2+4H2 = CH4+2H2O
- * exothermic and spontaneous with a nickel catalyst with 99% first pass conversion
- * oxygen can be produced, and some hydrogen recovered and recycled, by electrolysis
- * in total, hydrogen can be converted to methane/oxygen bipropellant in the ratio of 1:12.
* Chlorine and fluorine from pyroclastics and volcanic hot spring deposits
- * * copper, zinc, lead, precious metals, etc.
- * Sulfur from FeS (troilite) in basaltic regolith and from volcanic fumerole deposits
* Unknown from soil crusts
* Hydrocarbon compounds depending on the existence and extent of early life and present life forms
- * evidence for life forms at the Viking lander sites "not" present (Horowitz, 1988) or low concentrations of lichen-like forms are a possibility (Levin and Straat, 1988)
* Hydrothermal deposits in volcanic regions
- * As on Earth (copper, zinc, lead, manganese, precious metals, etc.)
* Mineral concentrations in layered extrusives and intrusives
- * Titanium (ilmenite), chromium (chromite), iron and sulfur (troilite), Ni, Fe, and Cu sulfides
Burns, R.G., and Fisher, D.S., 1993 in Haberle, R.M., 1993, Editor, Mars Surface and Atmosphere Through Time (MSATT), Journal of Geophysical Research, v 98.
Carr, M., et al., 1984, The Geology of the Terrestrial Planets, NASA SP-469.
Cave, J.A., 1993, Ice in the Northern Lowlands, and Southern Highlands of Mars and its Enrichment Beneath the Elysium Lavas, in Haberle, R.M., 1993, Editor, Mars Surface and Atmosphere Through Time (MSATT), Journal of Geophysical Research, v 98, 11079-11097.
Haberle, R.M., 1993, Editor, Mars Surface and Atmosphere Through Time (MSATT), Journal of Geophysical Research, v 98.
Horowitz, N.H., 1998, The Biological Question of Mars, in D.B. Reiber, editor, The NASA Mars Conference, AAS Science and Technology Series, v 71, 177185.
Komatsu, G., et al., 1993, Stratigraphy and Erosional Landforms of Layered Deposits in Valles Marineris, Mars, in Haberle, R.M., 1993, Editor, Mars Surface and Atmosphere Through Time (MSATT), Journal of Geophysical Research, v 98, 11105-11121.
Levin, G.V., 1988, A Reappraisal of Life on Mars, in D.B. Reiber, editor, The NASA Mars Conference, AAS Science and Technology Series, v 71, 187-208.
Lewis, J., Matthews, M.S., and Guerrieri, M.L., 1993, Editors, Resources of Near-Earth Space, University of Arizona Press.
NASA, 1988, (to be supplied later)
McKay,C.P., et al., 1991, Making Mars Habitable, Nature, v 352, 489-496.
Meyer, T.R, and McKay, C.P., 1989, The Resources of Mars for Human Settlement, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, v 42, 147-60.
Neal, V., et al., Extravehicular Activity in Mars Surface Exploration, Report on Advanced Extravehicular Activity Systems Requirements Definition Study, NASA-17779.
Pathfinder Rover Team, 1997, Characterization of the Martian Surface Deposits by the Mars Pathfinder Rover, Sojourner, Science, 278, 1765-1768.
Rieder, R., et al, 1997, The Chemical Composition of Martian Soil and Rocks Returned by the Mobile Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer: Preliminary Results from the X-ray Mode, Science, 278, 1771-1776.
Stoker, C.R., et al., 1993, The Physical and Chemical Properties and Resource Potential of Martian Surface Soils, in Lewis, J., Matthews, M.S., and Guerrieri, M.L., Editors, Resources of Near-Earth Space, University of Arizona Press.
Sullivan, et al., 1991, Using Space Resources, NASA Johnson Space Center, 27p.
Zubrin, R.M., and Baker, D.A, 1991, Mars Direct: a simple, Robust, and Cost Effective Architecture for the Space Exploration Initiative, 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, January 6-10, 1991, Reno, Nevada..
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